Using quantum algorithms to simulate complex physical processes and correlations in quantum matter has been a major direction of quantum computing research, towards the promise of a quantum advantage over classical approaches. In this work we develop a generalized quantum algorithm to simulate any dynamical process represented by either the operator sum representation or the Lindblad master equation. We then demonstrate the quantum algorithm by simulating the dynamics of the Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) complex on the IBM QASM quantum simulator. This work represents a first demonstration of a quantum algorithm for open quantum dynamics with a moderately sophisticated dynamical process involving a realistic biological structure. We discuss the complexity of the quantum algorithm relative to the classical method for the same purpose, presenting a decisive query complexity advantage of the quantum approach based on the unique property of quantum measurement. An accurate yet tractable quantum algorithm for the description of complex open quantum systems (like the FMO complex) has a myriad of significant applications from catalytic chemistry and correlated materials physics to descriptions of hybrid quantum systems.